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Licklider's identified need for inter-networking would become obvious by the apparent waste of resources this caused. In the 1960s, Paul Baran of the RAND Corporation produced a study of survivable networks for the U. Larry Roberts applied Davies' concepts of packet switching for the ARPANET wide area network, and sought input from Paul Baran and Leonard Kleinrock.For each of these three terminals, I had three different sets of user commands. Kleinrock subsequently developed the mathematical theory behind the performance of this technology building on his earlier work on queueing theory.At the National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom) in 1965, Davies designed and proposed a national data network based on packet switching.The following year, he described the use of an "Interface computer" to act as a router.Such communication systems were typically limited to point to point communication between two end devices.
Initial concepts of wide area networking originated in several computer science laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, and France.The Telegraph in the late 19th century was the first fully digital communication system.Fundamental theoretical work in data transmission and information theory was developed by Claude Shannon, Harry Nyquist, and Ralph Hartley in the early 20th century.Such networks became known as local area networks (LANs). In October 1962, Licklider was hired by Jack Ruina as director of the newly established Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) within DARPA, with a mandate to interconnect the United States Department of Defense's main computers at Cheyenne Mountain, the Pentagon, and SAC HQ. I said, oh man, it's obvious what to do: If you have these three terminals, there ought to be one terminal that goes anywhere you want to go where you have interactive computing. Although he left the IPTO in 1964, five years before the ARPANET went live, it was his vision of universal networking that provided the impetus for one of his successors, Robert Taylor, to initiate the ARPANET development.Networking beyond this scope, known as wide area networks (WANs), emerged during the 1950s and became established during the 1960s. There he formed an informal group within DARPA to further computer research. Licklider later returned to lead the IPTO in 1973 for two years.
These technologies made it possible to exchange data (such as files) between remote computers.